Approaches to the thoracic cavities
In the past, posterolateral thoracotomy was utilized as the usual incision for pediatric patients. Nevertheless, in children, most thoracotomic operations could be performed through a muscle sparing lateral thoracotomy. The video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is progressively more used since most procedures can be tailored to VATS. On the contrary, median sternotomy has a partial role and consent the access to both lungs and mediastinal structures.